Judge James Richard Crawford
Born in Adelaide, Australia, on 14 November 1948.
B.A. in English and History‑Politics, (1971); L.L.B. (first class honours), (1971); Stow Scholar; Australian Shell Scholar, (1971), Adelaide University. DPhil, (Oxon, 1977). L.L.D, (Cantab, 2004). Juris Doctor (honoris causa), Pázmány Péter Catholic University of Budapest, (2005); University of Paris 1 Sorbonne, (2007); University of Amsterdam, (2014).
Professional qualifications: Barrister and Solicitor of the High Court of Australia (1977). Barrister of the Supreme Court of New South Wales (called 6 November 1987); Senior Counsel (appointed 7 November 1997). Barrister, Grays Inn (called March 1999); Foundation Member of Matrix Chambers, Grays Inn, London.
Employment: Lecturer, (August 1974‑1977); Senior Lecturer, (1977‑1982); Reader, (1982‑1983); Professor of Law (Personal Chair), (1983‑1986), University of Adelaide. Australian Law Reform Commission, Commissioner (full‑time), (1982‑1984). Challis Professor of International Law, (1986‑1992); Dean, Faculty of Law, (1990‑1992), University of Sydney. Whewell Professor of International Law; Professorial Fellow of Jesus College (since 1992); Director, Lauterpacht Research Centre for International Law (1995‑2003, 2006‑2010); Chair, Faculty Board of Law (2003‑2006), University of Cambridge. Research Professor of Law (part‑time, 2011‑2014), Latrobe University. Chang Jiang. Professorship, Xian Jiaotong University, Peoples Republic of China (since 2013).
Governmental and Inter‑governmental bodies: Commissioner, (1982‑1990) (part‑time, 1984‑1990), Australian Law Reform Commission. Member, Australian National Commission for UNESCO (1984‑1988). Member, Advisory Committee on the Australian Judicial System, (Australia), Constitutional Commission, (1985‑1987). Member, Admiralty Rules Committee (Australia), (1989‑1992). Member, United Nations International Law Commission, (1992‑2001).
Committees, Professional Associations: President, Australasian Universities Law Schools Association, (1985). Fellow, British Academy (elected 2000). Member of the Curatorium, Hague Academy of International Law, (elected 1999). Associate (elected l985); Member (since 1991), Institut de Droit international. Director of Studies, International Law Association, (1991‑1997). Honorary Member, Maritime Law Association of Australia and New Zealand.
Legal and professional practice: Engaged as Counsel in the following cases before the International Court of Justice: Certain Phosphate Lands in Nauru (Nauru v. Australia) I.C.J. Reports 1992, p. 240 (Counsel for Nauru) (settled in August 1993). Territorial Dispute (Libya v. Chad) I.C.J. Reports 1994, p. 6 (Counsel for Libya). East Timor Dispute (Portugal v. Australia) I.C.J. Reports 1995, p. 90 (Counsel for Australia). Aerial Incident of 3 July 1988 (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America), (Counsel for Iran) (withdrawn pending settlement negotiations; settled 1996: see I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 9). Request for an Investigation of the Situation (New Zealand v. France) I.C.J. Reports 1995, p. 288 (Counsel for Pacific Island States seeking to intervene: Samoa, Solomon Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands). Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict (Advisory Opinion), I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 66 (Counsel for Solomon Islands). Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons (Advisory Opinion), I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 226 (Counsel for Solomon Islands). Land and Maritime Dispute (Cameroon v. Nigeria) I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 13 (Interim Measures); I.C.J. Reports 1998, p. 275; I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 303 (Counsel for Nigeria). Case concerning the Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America) (Senior Counsel for Iran) I.C.J. Reports 1996, p. 803. Gabčíkovo‑Nagymaros Barrage System (Hungary v. Slovakia) I.C.J. Reports 1997, p. 7 (Senior Counsel for Hungary). Case concerning Sipidan and Ligitan (Malaysia v. Indonesia) I.C.J. Reports 2002, p. 625 (Senior Counsel for Malaysia). Case concerning Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia v. Serbia) (Senior Counsel for Croatia). Case concerning Certain Property (Liechtenstein v. Germany) I.C.J. Reports 2006, p. 6 (Senior Counsel for Liechtenstein). Case concerning Pulau Batu Puteh (Malaysia v. Singapore), Judgment of 23 May 2008 (Senior Counsel for Malaysia). Advisory Opinion on Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, I.C.J. Reports 2004, p. 136 (Counsel for Palestine). Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v. Ukraine), I.C.J. Reports 2009, Judgment of 3 February 2009 (Senior Counsel for Romania). Dispute regarding Navigational and Related Rights (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Judgment of 13 July 2009 (Senior Counsel for Costa Rica). Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v. Colombia) (Merits) (Senior Counsel for Colombia). Aerial Herbicide Spraying (Ecuador v. Colombia) (Senior Counsel for Colombia). Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation) (Senior Counsel for Georgia). Maritime Dispute (Peru v. Chile) (Senior Counsel for Chile). Kosovo Advisory Opinion (Senior Counsel for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland). Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia v. Greece (Senior Counsel for Greece). Case concerning Whaling in the Antarctic (Australia v. Japan; New Zealand intervening) (Counsel for Australia). Case concerning Certain Activities carried out by Nicaragua in the Border Area (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua) (Senior Counsel for Costa Rica). Request for Interpretation of the Judgment of 15 June 1962 in the Case concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand) (Co‑Counsel for Thailand). Construction of a Road in Costa Rica along the San Juan River (Nicaragua v. Costa Rica) (Senior Counsel for Costa Rica). Questions relating to the Seizure and Detention of Certain Documents and Data (Timor‑Leste v. Australia) (Counsel for Australia). Maritime Delimitation in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua) (Senior Counsel for Costa Rica).
Engaged as Counsel before other international tribunals including: Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America, Cases Nos. A15(IV) and A24 (Award No. 590‑A15(IV)/A24‑FT, 28 December 1998) 34 Iran‑US CTR 105 (Iran‑United States Claims Tribunal, Full Tribunal) (Counsel for the Islamic Republic of Iran). Prosecutor v. Blakić (Objection to the Issue of Subpoenae duces tecum) (International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Trial Chamber II) (1997) 110 ILR 606, on appeal, ibid. 668) (Counsel for the Prosecutor). Tradex Hellas SA v. Albania (1996, 1999) 5 ICSID Reports 43 (International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes Tribunal) (Senior Counsel for Albania). Case concerning Southern Bluefin Tuna (Australia and New Zealand v. Japan), Order for interim measures of protection, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 26 August 1999 38 ILM 1624 (1999), 117 ILR 148; Annex VII arbitration, Washington, May 2000, 119 ILR 508 (Senior Counsel for Australia). Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America, Case No. A30 (Iran‑United States Claims Tribunal, Full Tribunal, pending) (Counsel for the Islamic Republic of Iran). Eritrea/Ethiopia Boundary Commission (Boundary Commission under the auspices of the Permanent Court of Arbitration) 41 ILM 1057 (Counsel for Eritrea). Eritrea/Ethiopia Compensation Commission (Commission under the auspices of the Permanent Court of Arbitration) 42 ILM 1027, 1056, 45 ILM 621 (Counsel for Eritrea). The Volga (Russia v. Australia) (Prompt Release) (International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea), 42 ILM 159. Case concerning Land Reclamation by Singapore in and around the Straits of Johor (Request for Provisional Measures) 126 ILR 487 (International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 2003) (Senior Counsel for Malaysia). Barbados v. Trinidad and Tobago (Ann. VII Tribunal under the 1982 Convention) (2006) 45 ILM 798 (Senior Counsel for Trinidad and Tobago). Baglihar Dam Dispute (Pakistan v. India) (proceedings before a Neutral Expert under the Indus Waters Agreement) (Senior Counsel for Pakistan). Abyei Dispute (Government of Sudan/Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement, Permanent Court of Arbitration) (Senior Counsel for the Republic of the Sudan). Bangladesh v. Myanmar, International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, Judgment of 14 March 2012 (Senior Counsel for Bangladesh). Bangladesh v. India, Ann. VII Tribunal (Senior Counsel for Bangladesh). Kishenganga Dam Dispute (Pakistan v. India) (proceedings before a Court of Arbitration under the Indus Waters Agreement) (Senior Counsel for Pakistan). United States Definitive Anti‑Dumping and Countervailing Duties on Certain Products from China (AB‑2010‑3/DS 379/AB‑R, 11 March 2011) (Counsel for China). Malaysia/Singapore (Transfer of Certain Railway Lands) (Senior Counsel for Malaysia). Mauritius v. United Kingdom (Case concerning a Marine Protected Area around the Chagos Archipelago (Counsel for Mauritius). Croatia/Slovenia (Land and Maritime Boundary) (Senior Counsel for Croatia). Timor‑Leste v. Australia (Senior Counsel for Australia). Denmark (on behalf of the Faroe Islands) v. European Union (Senior Counsel for the Faroe Islands). Counsel for applicant or respondent in approximately 40 arbitrations (ICC, UNCITRAL, ICSID, NAFTA, etc.).
Experience as Judge or arbitrator in the following proceedings: Judge, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Administrative Tribunal (since 1993). Dabhol Power Company v. State of Maharashtra (ad hoc arbitration under UNCITRAL Rules, 1995) (interim award on jurisdiction and arbitrability, 7 February 1996; subsequently settled by consent order) (President of the Tribunal). Larsen v. Hawaiian Kingdom (presiding arbitrator; ad hoc arbitration under the auspices of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, award terminating arbitration, February 2001), 119 ILR 566. Newfoundland/Nova Scotia, Maritime Boundary Arbitration (member of the Tribunal, appointed by the Government of Canada) first phase, Fredericton, Award of 17 May 2001, 128 ILR 453; second phase, Award of 26 March 2002, 128 ILR 504. Compañía de Aguas del Aconquija S.A. and Vivendi Universal S.A. v. Argentine Republic (ICSID Case No. ARB/97/3), Decision of 3 July 2002, 41 ILM 1037, 125 ILR 43, 6 ICSID Reports 330, 340 (member of the ad hoc Committee). Mondev International Ltd. v. United States of America (ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/99/2), Award of 11 October 2002, 42 ILM 85; 125 ILR 98, 6 ICSID Reports 192 (member of the Tribunal). Waste Management, Inc. v. United Mexican States (ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/00/3) (President), Decision on Preliminary Objection, 24 July 2002; 41 ILM 1315, 6 ICSID Reports 549; Award of 30 April 2004, 11 ICSID Reports 361 (President of the Tribunal). Yaung Chi Oo Trading Pte Ltd. v. Government of Myanmar (ASEAN Case No. ARB 01/1, member of the Tribunal), Final Award, 31 March 2003, 42 ILM 540 (member of the Tribunal). Case concerning the MOX Plant, Republic of Ireland v. United Kingdom (Arbitration under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Ann. VII) 42 ILM 1118, 126 ILR 310 (party‑appointed arbitrator for the Republic of Ireland). SGS Société Générale de Surveillance SA v. Republic of the Philippines (ICSID Case No. ARB/02/6) decision on jurisdiction and admissibility, 29 January 2004, 8 ICSID Reports 515; 129 ILR 444 (member of the Tribunal). Jacobs Gibb Limited v. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (ICSID Case No. ARB/02/12) (party‑appointed arbitrator, settled). EnCana Corporation v. Government of the Republic of Ecuador (2006) 12 ICSID Reports 400 (President of the Tribunal). ZG Specialty Insurance Co. v. Sovereign Risk Insurance Ltd (AAA Arbitration) (member of the Tribunal, settled). Republic of Armenia v. Helennic Telecommunications Organization SA (ICC Arbitration 10905/ACS/FM) (member of the Tribunal, settled). Channel Tunnel Group Ltd & Another v. Secretary of State for Transport & Another (President of the Tribunal), partial award of 30 January 2007, 132 ILR 1. Tembec Inc. v. United States of America (NAFTA Chap. 11 Arbitration) (member of the Tribunal, consolidated). MTD Equity Sdn Bhd v. Republic of Chile (ICSID Case No. ARB/01/07) (member of the Annulment Committee) (decision of 21 March 2007). CMS Gas Transmission Co. v. Argentine Republic (ICSID Case No. ARB/01/08) (member of the Annulment Committee) (decision of 25 September 2007). Asian Village Antigua Limited v. Government of Antigua and Barbuda (UNCITRAL arbitration under the auspices of the London Court of International Arbitration) (sole arbitrator), Award of 28 September 2007. Chemtura Corporation v. Government of Canada (NAFTA Chap. 11 Arbitration, member of the Tribunal, Award of 2 August 2010). Trans‑Global Petroleum Inc v. Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (ICSID Arbitration, member of the Tribunal, settled). Liman Caspian Oil BV and NCL Dutch Investment BV v. Republic of Kazakhstan (ICSID Case No. ARB/07/14, member of the Tribunal, Award of 23 June 2010). Railroad Development Corporation v. Republic of Guatemala (ICSID Case No. ARB/07/23, member of Tribunal, Award of May 2012). FTR Holding S.A., Philip Morris Products S.A. and Abal Hermanos S.A. v. Oriental Republic of Uruguay (ICSID Case No. ARB/10/07, member of the Tribunal, pending). U.S. Steel Global Holdings BV v. Republic of Slovakia (UNCITRAL arbitration, member of the Tribunal, pending) Blusun AS & ors v. Italian Republic (ICSID Case No. Arb 14/3, president of Tribunal, pending).
Expert witness and published opinions: Trade Practices Commission v. Australia Meat Holdings Pty Ltd (1988) 83, Australian Law Reports 299 (Federal Court of Australia, Wilcox J.). Schexnider v. McDermott International Inc. (DC, La (WD), 1988, Civil Action No. 81‑2358) (evidence on oath for plaintiff). Simoneaux v. McDermott International Inc. (SC, La, 1989) (evidence on deposition for plaintiff). Propend Pty Ltd v. Singh & Commissioner for the Australian Federal Police (United Kingdom High Court, Laws J, 1996, CA, 1997, leave to appeal to the House of Lords refused) (evidence on oath for defendant, evidence upheld on appeal), 111 ILR 611. Adviser to and expert witness on behalf of the Department of Justice, Government of Canada, Reference re Secession of Quebec (Canada, Supreme Court), 115 ILR 536. Citoma Trading Ltd v. Federative Republic of Brazil, Court of Appeal, 1999, on appeal from J. H. Rayner (Mincing Lane) Ltd & others v. Cafenorte SA Importadora & others  1 All ER (Comm) 120. Expert witness on behalf of the Department of Justice, Government of Canada, Democracy Watch and another v. Attorney General of Canada (Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Court File No. 01‑CV‑211576). Expert witness on behalf of the Department of Justice, Government of Canada, Council of Canadians and another v. Attorney General of Canada (Ontario Superior Court of Justice, Court File No. 01‑CV‑208141), reprinted in (2005) 2 (5) Transnational Dispute Management. Expert witness on behalf of Talisman Energy, Inc., Presbyterian Church of Sudan & others v. Talisman Energy, Inc. & Republic of Sudan, 244 F Supp 289 (DNY, 19 March 2003), 582 F 3d 244 (2nd Ct, 2 October 2009) and on certiorari to the Supreme Court (June 2010). Expert opinion (with Professor Alan Boyle), in Scotland analysis: Devolution and the implications of Scottish independence (Cm 8554, February 2013), pp. 63‑108. In addition, expert reports on international law in numerous arbitrations.
Counsel before national courts: R v. Lyons and others,  4 All ER 1028 (HL) (Junior Counsel for the Appellants). R (Al Jeddah) v. Secretary of State for Defence,  UKHL 58 (Senior Counsel for the interveners, Liberty & Justice). The Republic of Croatia v. The Republic of Serbia,  EWHC 1559 (Ch) (Senior Counsel for Croatia).
Miscellaneous: Legal Adviser to the Crown Prince of Jordan, Israel Jordan Treaty of Peace, Araba Crossing Point, 26 October 1994 (1995) 34 ILM 43. Retained by Shipping Conference Services to advise foreign shipping companies on application of Australian legislation to conference trades (1988‑1993, 1996, 2000, 2004).
Honours and prizes: Panglima Jasa Negara (Malaysia, 2007). Cavaler, Ordinul Naţional Servicio Credincios (Romania, 2009). Wolfgang Friedmann Memorial Award (Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 2009). Nessim Habif World Prize for International Law (University of Geneva, 2010). Manley Hudson Medal (American Society of International Law, 2012). Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) (2013). Chambers Lifetime Achievement Award (2013).
Books: The Creation of States in International Law (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1979), pp. i‑xxviii, 1‑498. The Rights of Peoples, ed. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1988; paperback, 1992), pp. i‑x, 1‑236. The Law of the Sea in the Asia Pacific Region (editor, with D. R. Rothwell) (Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 1995), pp. ix, 282. The Future of UN Human Rights Treaty Monitoring (co‑edited with Philip Alston) (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. i‑xxx, 1‑530. The International Law Commissions Articles on State Responsibility: Introduction, Text and Commentaries (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. xxviii, 384; also published in French as Les articles de la C.D.I. sur la responsabilité de lÉtat: Introduction, texte et commentaires (Pedone, Paris, 2003), pp. xvi, 461; and in Spanish as Los artículos de la Comisión de Derecho Internacional sobre la Responsibilidad Internacional del Estado: Introducción, texto y comentarios (Dykinson, Madrid, 2004), 461 pages. International Law as an Open System: Selected Essays (Cameron & May, London, 2002), pp. 1‑607. Australian Courts of Law (4th ed. with Brian Opeskin, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 2004), pp. xii, 1‑308. Foreign Investment Disputes. Cases, Materials and Commentary (with R. Doak Bishop and W. Michael Reisman) (Kluwer Law International, The Hague, 2005), pp. lv, 1653. Rights in One Country: Hong Kong and China (University of Hong Kong, 2005), pp. i‑xviii, 1‑42. The Creation of States in International Law (2nd ed., Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. i‑lxii, 1‑870. The Law of International Responsibility (edited with A. Pellet & S. Olleson) (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. i‑lxv, 1‑1296. The Cambridge Companion to International Law (co‑edited with M. Koskenniemi) (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, January 2012), pp. xii, 471. Brownlies Principles of Public International Law (sole editor) (8th ed., Oxford, Oxford University Press, September 2012), pp. lxxx, 803. State Responsibility: The General Part (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2013), pp. lxiv, 831. Chance, Order, Change: The Course of International Law (Hague Academy of International Law, Recueil des cours, Vol. 365 (2013), pp. 9‑381).
Editorial: Editor, Adelaide Law Review, Vol. 3, No. 3 (1969); Vol. 5, Nos. 2‑4 (1974‑1976); Vol. 6, Nos. 1‑3 (1977‑1978). Joint Editor, The Aborigine in Comparative Law (1987) 2 in Law and Anthropology (Austria), pp. i‑viii, 1‑457. Consultant Editor, Japanese Study Group (Y. Onuma and others) on Grotius, De Iure Belli ac Pacis: published as Y. Onuma, A Normative Approach to War: Peace, War, and Justice in Hugo Grotius (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1993), pp. xvii, 421. Editor, International Law Association, Report of the 64th Biennial Conference, Queensland, 19‑25 August 1990 (ILA, London, 1991). Co‑editor, International Law Association, Report of the 65th Biennial Conference, Cairo, 21‑26 April 1992 (ILA, Cairo, 1993). Co‑editor, International Law Association, Report of the 67th Biennial Conference, Helsinki, 11‑18 August 1996 (ILA, London, 1997). Editor, British Yearbook of International Law (1994‑1999); Senior Editor (since 2000). Co‑editor, Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law (1996‑; 94 volumes published). Member of Editorial Panel, World Trade Review (2002‑2005). Member of Board of Editors, American Journal of International Law (since 2004). Co‑editor, ICSID Reports (since 2002).
Official Reports: ALRC 24, Foreign State Immunity (Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1984), pp. i‑xxiv, 1‑168 (Commissioner in Charge). The Summary of Recommendations and Draft Legislation appended to the Report is reproduced in 23 ILM 1398. Legislation to implement the Report was enacted: Foreign States Immunities Act 1985 (Cth), 25 ILM 715. ALRC 31, The Recognition of Aboriginal Customary Laws (AGPS, Canberra, 1986), Summary volume: pp. i‑xvii, 1‑104; Vol. I: pp. i‑xxxix, 1‑507; Vol. II: pp. i‑xvi, 1‑415 (Commissioner in Charge). ALRC 33, Civil Admiralty Jurisdiction (AGPS, Canberra, 1986) (Commissioner in Charge), pp. i‑xxi, 1‑393. Legislation to implement the Report was enacted: Admiralty Act 1988 (Cth); Admiralty Rules 1988 (Cth). Constitutional Commission, Australian Judicial System Advisory Committee, Report (AGPS, Canberra, 1987) (Member). ALRC 48, Criminal Admiralty Jurisdiction and Prize (AGPS, Canberra, 1990) (Commissioner in Charge), pp. i‑xvi, 1‑210.
Governmental Nominations and Conferences: Member of the Australian delegation to UNESCO General Conference, Sofia, October 1985. See UNESCO General Conference, Report of the Australian Delegation (AGPS, Canberra, 1986), 36. Leader of the Australian Observer Delegation, Asian African Legal Consultative Committee, Bangkok (January 1987). Adviser, Australian delegation to the United Nations General Assembly, Sixth Committee, Forty‑third Session, 1988; Forty‑fourth Session, 1989; Forty‑fifth Session, 1990; Forty‑sixth Session, 1991. Member, International Law Commission (1992‑2001): Responsible for drafting the Working Group Report (ILC Yearbook 1992, Vol. II, Part 2, pp. 58‑80) and Draft Statute (1993) for an International Criminal Court, ILC Yearbook 1993, Vol. II, Part 2, pp. 100‑132 (Chair); for the final Draft Statute, Yearbook of the International Law Commission, 1994, Vol. II, Part 2, pp. 26‑74; text also in A. Watts, The International Law Commission, 1949‑1998. Vol. II: The Treaties (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 1454‑1552. Responsible for drafting Report on Working Methods of the Commission, published in ILC Report 1996, Ann. I. Special Rapporteur on State Responsibility (1997‑2001). First report on State responsibility (A/CN.4/490 and Add.1‑5, 1998), ILC Yearbook 1998, Vol. II (part 1), pp. 1‑80. Second report on State responsibility (A/CN.4/498 and Add.1‑4, 1999), ILC Yearbook 1999, Vol. II (Part 1), pp. 3‑100. Third report on State responsibility (A/CN.4/507 and Add.1‑4, 2000), ILC Yearbook 2000, Vol. II (part 1), pp. 3‑111. Fourth report on State responsibility (A/CN.4/517 and Add.1, 2001), ILC Yearbook 2001, Vol. II (Part 1), pp. 3‑31. The Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts were adopted by the International Law Commission on 14 August 2001, and annexed to General Assembly resolution 56/83 of 12 December 2001.
Major lectures: Hersch Lauterpacht Memorial Lectures, Cambridge, (January 1988). Ebsworth and Ebsworth Maritime Law Lecture, Sydney, (August 1996). Bertha Wilson Distinguished Visiting Professor, Dalhousie Law School, (January 1997). Hague Academy of International Law, Multilateral Legal Rights and Obligations (August 1997). Synder Memorial Lecture, University of Indiana (April 2000). First James Crawford Biennial Lecture in International Law, University of Adelaide (September 2003). Hochelaga Lectures, Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong (2004). Twenty‑second Freshfields Lecture on International Arbitration, London (December 2007). First Michael Kirby Lecture, Canberra (June 2008). Josephine Onoh Memorial Lecture, University of Hull Law School (26 November 2008). Hudson Lecture, American Society of International Law (30 March 2012). Thirteenth Kenneth Bailey Memorial Lecture, Melbourne Law School (19 March 2013).