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Current Members


Judge Christopher Greenwood

(Member of the Court since 6 February 2009)

Born in Wellingborough, United Kingdom, 12 May 1955.

Knight Bachelor, for services to public international law, 2009. Companion of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, 2002.

Educated at Raeburn Park School, Singapore, and Wellingborough School, United Kingdom. Studied law at Magdalene College, Cambridge: BA (1976), LL.B (1977), MA (1980).

Fellow of Magdalene College, Cambridge (1978-1996), Fellow Commoner (1996-2009), Honorary Fellow (2009). Assistant Lecturer in Law (1981-1984) and Lecturer in Law (1984-1996), University of Cambridge; Professor of International Law, London School of Economics (1996-2009).

Barrister, Middle Temple (1978); Queen’s Counsel (1999); Bencher, Middle Temple (2003).

Member of the Panels of Arbitrators for the Law of the Sea Treaty and the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes.

Counsel before the International Court of Justice in Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libya v. United Kingdom); Advisory Opinions on Nuclear Weapons; Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslavia v. United Kingdom); Legality of Use of Force (Serbia and Montenegro v. United Kingdom); Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo(Democratic Republic of Congo v. Rwanda); Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Honduras).

Counsel before the European Court of Human Rights, the Court of Justice of the European Communities, the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, the United Nations Compensation Commission and various international arbitration tribunals.

Appearances as Counsel before the English courts include: R. v. Bow Street Magistrate, ex parte Pinochet (No. 1) [2000] 1 AC 147 and (No. 3) [2000] 1 AC 147 (House of Lords); Holland v. Lampen-Wolfe [2000] 1 WLR 1573 (House of Lords), Kuwait Airways Corporation v. Iraqi Airways Co. [2002] 2 AC 883 (House of Lords); R (European Roma Rights Centre) v. Immigration Officer [2005] 2 AC 1 (House of Lords); Jones v. Saudi Arabia [2007] 1 AC 270 (House of Lords); R (Al-Skeini) v. Secretary of State [2008] 1 AC 153 (House of Lords); R (Al-Jedda) v. Secretary of State [2008] 1 AC 332.

Counsel in cases in Bermuda and Gibraltar; expert witness in cases in the United States of America and Canada.

President, Arbitration Tribunal, Corn Products v. United Mexican States (NAFTA-ICSID, 2004-2009); Member Arbitration Tribunals: Larsen v. Hawaiian Kingdom (Permanent Court of Arbitration, 2001), Azpetrol v. Azerbaijan (ICSID, 2006-2009), European Media Ventures v. Czech Republic (2007-2009) and various other cases.

Publications include: International Law Reports (Joint editor); Essays on War in International Law, 2006; Command and the Laws of Armed Conflict, 1993; The Kuwait Conflict (co-editor), 1991; and approximately 100 articles in law journals, including: “State Contracts in International Law”, British Year Book of International Law, Vol. 58, 1982, pp. 27-81; “The Relationship of Ius ad Bellum and Ius in Bello”, Review of International Studies, Vol. 9, 1983, pp. 221-234; “The Concept of War in Modern International Law”, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Vol. 36, 1987, pp. 283-306; “Self-Defence and the Conduct of International Armed Conflict”, in Y. Dinstein (ed.) International Law at a Time of Perplexity, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989, pp. 273-288; “Twilight of the Law of Belligerent Reprisals”, Netherlands Year Book of International Law, Vol. 20, 1989, pp. 35-69; “Terrorism and Protocol I”, Israel Year Book of Human Rights, Vol. 19, 1989, pp. 187-208; “The Administration of Occupied Territory in International Law”, in E. Playfair (ed.) International Law and the Administration of Occupied Territories, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 241-266; “The Customary Law Status of the 1977 Additional Protocols”, in A. Delissen and G. Tanja (eds.) Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflicts (Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, 1991, pp. 93-114; “New World Order or Old? The Invasion of Kuwait and the Rule of Law”, Modern Law Review, Vol. 55, 1992, pp. 153-178; Chapters 1 and 2 in D. Fleck (ed.) Handbuck des Humanitaren Volkerrechts in bewaffneten Konflikten, 1994, pp. 1-55; published in English as D. Fleck (ed.) The Handbook of Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts, Oxford, 1995, 2nd edition, 2008; “Considerations of International Law” (with Hugh Mercer) in B. Eichengreen and R. Portes (eds.) Crisis? What Crisis? Orderly Workouts for Sovereign Debtors, 1995, pp. 103-117; “The United Nations as Guarantor of International Peace and Security 1945-95: A United Kingdom View”, in C. Tomuschat (ed.) The United Nations at Age Fifty: A Legal Perspective, 1996, pp. 59-76; “The International Court and the Use of Force”, in A.V. Lowe and M. Fitzmaurice (eds.) Fifty Years of the International Court of Justice, 1996, pp. 373-388; “International Humanitarian Law and the Tadic Case”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 7, 1996, pp. 265-283; “Protection of Peacekeepers: The Legal Régime”, Duke Journal of International Law, Vol. 7, 1996, pp. 185-207; “The Advisory Opinion on Nuclear Weapons and the Contribution of the International Court to International Humanitarian Law”, Int. Rev. of the Red Cross, Vol. 37, 1997, pp. 65-75; “A Critique of the Protocols” (on the 1977 Additional Protocols to the Geneva Conventions), in Durham and McCormack (ed.) The Changing Face of Conflict and the Efficacy of International Law, Kluwer, 1999, pp. 3-22; “The Development of International Humanitarian Law by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia”, Year Book of United Nations Law, Vol. 2, 1998, pp. 97-140; “International Humanitarian Law and United Nations Military Operations”, Year Book of International Humanitarian Law, Vol. 1, 1998, pp. 3-34; “The Law of Weaponry at the Start of the New Millennium”, in L.C. Green and M. Schmitt (eds.) Into the Millennium: The Law of Armed Conflict, US Naval War College, 1999, pp. 185-232; “Rights at the Frontier: Protecting the Individual in Time of War”, in Rider (ed.) Law at the Centre, 1999; the 50th Anniversary Lectures of the Institute for Advanced Legal Studies, Kluwer Law International, pp. 277-293; Report on International Humanitarian Law published under commission from the Netherlands Government as part of the Centenary of the First Hague Peace Conference, published in F Kalshoven (ed.) The Centennial of the First International Peace Conference, Kluwer, 2000, pp. 161-259; “War, Terrorism and International Law”, Current Legal Problems, 2003, Oxford, pp. 505-530; “The Law of Armed Conflict”, chapter in M. Evans (ed.) International Law, Oxford, 2003 and 2007; “Command Responsibility and the Hadzihasanovic decision”, Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 2, 2004, pp. 598-605; “State Responsibility for the Decisions of National Courts”, in Fitzmaurice and Sarooshi (eds.) Issues of State Responsibility before International Judicial Institutions, 2004, pp. 55-74; Chapter on the United Kingdom in Gowlland-Debbas (ed.) National Implementation of United Nations Sanctions, 2004, pp. 581-604.