International Court of Justice

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Judge Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade

(Member of the Court since 6 February 2009)

Born in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 17 September 1947.

I. Academic background

PhD in International Law (1977), University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, with the thesis on “Developments in the Rule of Exhaustion of Local Remedies in International Law”.

LL.M. in International Law, University of Cambridge (1973); LL.B. in Law, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil (First Prize in Civil Law, 1969).

II. Academic/teaching experience

1. Permanent teaching

Professor (Full Professor/Professeur Titulaire) of Public International Law at the University of Brasilia (since 1978) and at the Diplomatic Academy Rio Branco of Brazil (since 1979).

2. Teaching at the Hague Academy of International Law

Lecturer at the Hague Academy of International Law, 2005 session (general course published in Vols. 316 and 317 (2005) of the Hague Academy’s Recueil des Cours); Lecturer at the Hague Academy of International Law, 1987 session (course published in Vol. 202 (1987) of the Hague Academy’s Recueil des Cours); Lecturer at the twentieth external session of the Hague Academy of International Law (Bogotá, 1989); Lecturer at the twenty-first external session of the Hague Academy of International Law (Santiago de Chile, 1991); Lecturer at the twenty-fourth external session of the Hague Academy of International Law (San José, Costa Rica, 1995); Lecturer at the twenty-seventh external session of the Hague Academy of International Law (Montevideo, 1998); Lecturer at the thirtieth external session of the Hague Academy of International Law (Mexico City, 2002); Lecturer at the thirty-third external session of the Hague Academy of International Law (Lima, 2005); Lecturer at the thirty-sixth external session of the Hague Academy of International Law (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 2008); Co-sponsor, as Judge of the Inter-American Law Court of Human Rights and Executive Director of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, of the twenty-fourth external session of the Hague Academy of International Law (San José, Costa Rica, 1995). Participant in the 1974 session of the Research Centre of the Hague Academy of International Law (certificate awarded).

3. Teaching at the OAS Inter-American Juridical Committee’s Courses

Lecturer at the annual courses of International Law organized by the OAS Inter-American Juridical Committee (Rio de Janeiro, sessions of 1981, 1982, 1985, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008).

4. Teaching at the International Institute of Human Rights (Strasbourg)

Lecturer at the annual study sessions of the International Institute of Human Rights (Strasbourg, France, sessions of 1988, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008).

5. Teaching at the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (San José, Costa Rica)

Lecturer at the Interdisciplinary Courses of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (sessions of 1986, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2004, 2007); academic co-ordinator of specialized courses and seminars of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, in Costa Rica and Brazil; lecturer at the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights in several countries.

6. Visiting professorships

Visiting Professor (“Cátedra Simón Bolivar”) at the University of Los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 1981 and 1982); Visiting Professor at the Institut des Hautes Études Internationales, University of Paris-II (Panthéon-Sorbonne, sessions of 1988-1989); Visiting Professor at the University of Ferrara, Italy (1983 and 1986); Visiting Professor (elected by the Congregation) of the University of Lisbon (1993); Visiting Professor at Columbia University (1st semester 1998); Visiting Professor at Tulane Law School, Tulane University, New Orleans (1st semester, 1999); Visiting Professor at the Universities of Seville and Deusto (Bilbao, Spain) (1st semester, 2002); Visiting Professor at Washington College of Law, American University (May/June 2003, 2004, 2006); Visiting Professor at the Autonomous University of Madrid/Foundation Ortega y Gasset.

III. Professional and academic awards and distinctions

Yorke Prize, awarded by the Faculty of Law of the University of Cambridge, United Kingdom (1978), for the author’s Ph.D. thesis in International Law (best Ph.D. thesis presented in the period 1977-1978); Honours, International Institute of Human Rights, Strasbourg, France (1988); Honours, Inter-American Institute of Human Rights, San José, Costa Rica (1997); Honours, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1999); University of Brasilia, Brazil (1999); Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil (2002); Professor Honoris Causa, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima/Peru (2001); Doctor Honoris Causa, Central University of Chile, Santiago, Chile (2003); Doctor Honoris Causa, Catholic University of Peru, Lima, Peru (2003); Prize “Isidro Fabela”, National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico (2003); Doctor Honoris Causa, American University of Paraguay, Asunción, Paraguay, (2004); Prize “Pontes de Miranda”, Brazilian Academy of Judicial Letters (2004); Doctor Honoris Causa, National University of La Plata, La Plata, Argentina (2005); Honorary Visiting Professor, University of Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia (2005); Annual Award of 2007 of the American Society of International Law (ASIL), Washington D.C., U.S.A. (2007), “W. Friedmann Memorial Award”, Columbia University, New York, U.S.A. (2008).

IV. Professional experience

President of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (elected 1999, re-elected 2002); Vice-President of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (elected 1997); Judge of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (elected 1995, re-elected by acclamation 2000); former Judge ad hoc of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (two cases, 1990-1994).

Executive Director of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (elected unanimously, 1994-1996). Member of the Board of Directors of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (elected 1988-1991, re-elected unanimously 1991-1994, re-elected unanimously 1996 at the end of term as Executive Director); External Legal Adviser to the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights (1991-1994); delegate of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights to the regional meeting of Latin America and the Caribbean preparatory to the United Nations World Conference on Human Rights (1993) and to other “satellite-meetings” for the Second United Nations World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993); Head of the Delegation of the Inter-American Institute of Human Rights to the Central American Conference on Peace and Development (Tegucigalpa, 1994).

Legal Adviser to the Ministry of External Relations of Brazil (1985-1990); Deputy Head of the Delegation of Brazil to the United Nations Conference on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations (Vienna, 1986); Delegate of Brazil to the Second World Conference on Human Rights (Vienna, 1993); Special Envoy of the Minister of External Relations of Brazil to Chile for Questions Pertaining to Human Rights (Santiago, 1993-1994); Delegate of Brazil to the twenty-fourth General Assembly of OAS (Belém do Pará, Brazil, 1994); Delegate of Brazil to the fourteenth General Assembly of OAS (Brasilia, 1984); Delegate of Brazil to the Conferences on the Latin American Parliament (Cartagena and Lima, 1987); Delegate of Brazil to the Joint Meeting of the Contadora Group and the Group of Support (Cartagena, 1985); Head of the Delegation of Brazil to the United Nations Conference on the Code of Conduct for Transfer of Technology (Geneva, 1983); Legal Adviser to the Delegation of Brazil to the Sixth Conference of the Brazilian-French Mixed Commission of Demarcation of Limits (1981).

Expert of the United Nations and Lecturer in the United Nations Global Consultation on the right to development as a human right (Geneva, 1990); Member of the Group of Senior Legal Advisers to UNEP (Nairobi, 1990-1992), participant of the meetings in Malta (1990), Nairobi (January and September 1991), Geneva (March and July 1991), Beijing (1991), Rio de Janeiro (1991-1992), Nairobi (September 1992); Member of the Advisory Committee of Experts in International Environmental Law of the United Nations University (1984-1987), participant at the meetings at The Hague (1984), Rio de Janeiro (1985), Strasbourg (1986), Goa, India (1987).

Adviser of UNDP for its project of advisory services to and modernization of the Foreign Offices of Latin American countries (1988 — Chile, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Guatemala); Adviser of UNEP for the elaboration of the project of environmental legislation of Sao Tome and Principe (1992); Member of the Group of Jurists of the Comisión Sudamericana de Paz, entrusted with the elaboration of the first draft of the Treaty of Zone of Peace in South America (Brasilia, August 1989, and Montevideo, June 1990).

Member of the Commission of Jurists of OAS for Nicaragua (1993-1994). Member of the Commission of Senior Legal Advisers to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) for the final evaluation of the process of the International Conference on Central American Refugees (Mexico City, 1994); Legal Adviser to the Council of Europe in the case concerning the 1995 Minsk Convention on Human Rights (1995).

Member of the Commission of Advisers to UNESCO on the Right to Peace as a Human Right (participant of the meetings of Las Palmas, Spain, February 1997, and Oslo, June 1997). Research supervisor for the project on humanitarian law and customary law, of the International Committee of the Red Cross (1997).

Arbitrator, International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (2006-2008).

Director of the Brazilian Journal of International Law (published every semester: Director since 1985); Co-Director of the Brazilian Journal of Human Rights (since 2001); Brazilian editor of the International Legal Materials (Washington/American Society of International Law, since 1981); Member of the Editorial Council of the Review “Arquivos” of the Ministry of Justice of Brazil (1987-2002); Member of the Editorial Board of the Brazilian Journal of International Politics (since 1993); Member of the Editorial Board of “International Newsletter” of the University of São Paulo, Brazil (since 1997).

V. Membership in scientific and professional associations

Member of the Curatorium of the Hague Academy of International Law (since 2004); Member of the Institute of International Law (since 1997); Elected member of the Committee on the Enforcement of Human Rights Law of the International Law Association (London); Elected member of the International Council of Environmental Law (Bonn).

Member of the Boards of Directors (elected and re-elected) of the Inter- American Institute of Human Rights and of the International Institute of Human Rights (San José and Strasbourg, respectively); Elected member of the International Institute of Humanitarian Law (San Remo).

Permanent Member of the Brazilian Society of International Law; Associate Member of the Asociación Argentina de Derecho Internacional; Elected member of the Societé Française pour le droit international; Permanent Member (elected, 1994), and former rapporteur (1996), of the Instituto Hispano-Luso-Americano de Derecho Internacional; Member of the American Society of International Law; Member of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law and of the Indian Society of International Law; Member of the Association des Anciens Auditeurs of the Hague Academy of International Law.

Member of the Advisory Board of the Asia-Pacific Council on Human Rights Studies (New Delhi, 1998); Member of the International Council on Human Rights Policy (London, 1997); Member of the Steering Committee of the Project on International Courts and Tribunals (New York/The Hague, 1998-2001).

Honorary President of the Brazilian Institute of Human Rights; Member of the Brazilian Bar Association; “Professor Homenageado” (elected by the students) of the University of Brasilia, “Professor Homenageado” (elected by the students) of the Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Brazil (1st Semester of 2002) and of the Tuiuti University of Curitiba, Brazil (2nd Semester of 2002); “Professor Homenageado” of the Diplomatic Academy Rio Branco (1999 and 2006).

Member of the Academia Mineira de Letras Jurídicas; Member of the Academia Brasileira de Letras Jurídicas.

VI. Publications

Author of 30 books and around 500 articles and monographs on international law, published in numerous countries.