International Court of Justice

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Current Members

 

Judge Leonid Skotnikov

(Member of the Court since 6 February 2006)

Born in Kalinin, USSR, on 26 March 1951.

Diploma in International Law; Moscow Institute of International Relations (1974). Fellow, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University (1990).

Officer (legal issues), Consular Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR (1974-1977). Officer (United Nations General Assembly Third and Sixth Committees matters), Permanent Mission of the USSR to the United Nations (1977-1981). Officer (human rights issues) (1981-1986), then Head of Division (general problems of international law, co-operation in countering new threats and challenges) (1987-1991), Legal Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. Director (1991-1992), Legal Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (1991-1992). Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1992-1998). Director, Legal Department, Member of the Collegium, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (1998-2001). Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva, as well as to the Conference on Disarmament (2001-2005).

Participation in major international forums and negotiations:

Member of the delegation of the USSR to the negotiations on bilateral consular conventions between the Government of the USSR and the Governments of the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, the Republic of Benin, the Republic of Cape Verde, the Republic of Mali, the Republic of Tunisia, the Republic of Turkey (1976-1977).

Representative of the USSR to the United Nations General Assembly intersessional Working Group to elaborate an international convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and their families (1979-1981).

Representative of the USSR to the United Nations General Assembly 37th Session Working Group on Principles of Medical Ethics relevant to the role of health personnel, particularly physicians, in the protection of prisoners and detainees against torture, and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (1982).

Member of the delegation of the USSR to the Third Committee, United Nations General Assembly, Thirty-seventh Session (1982).

Member of the delegation of the USSR to the session of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (1983).

Representative of the USSR, the United Nations Seminar on the Encouragement of Understanding, Tolerance and Respect in Matters relating to Freedom of Religion or Belief (Geneva) (1984).

Member of the delegation of the USSR, Meeting of Experts on Questions concerning Respect, in their States, for Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, in all their Aspects, as embodied in the Final Act, CSCE (Ottawa) (1985).

Member of the delegation of the USSR to the session of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (1986).

Member of the delegation of the USSR to the Sixth Committee, United Nations General Assembly, Forty-Second to Forty-Fourth Sessions (1987-1989).

Member of the Russian delegation to the meetings of Heads of States and Governments of the Commonwealth of Independent States (Alma-Ata, 1991; Minsk, 1991; Moscow, 1992; Minsk, 1992; Kiev 1992).

Deputy Head of the Russian delegation to the Second Session of the Conference of States Parties of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (1997).

Member of the Administrative Council of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (1992-1998).

Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration Steering Committee established by the Secretary-General pursuant to the authorization of the PCA Administrative Council with the purpose to assist the International Bureau and the Administrative Council in preparing for the centenary of the PCA, by making recommendations concerning revision of the Hague conventions and improvement of the PCA's dispute settlement mechanisms (1994-1998).

Head of the Russian delegation to the negotiations with the Governments of the Republic of Iceland and the Kingdom of Norway on the trilateral agreement concerning certain aspects of co-operation in the area of fisheries (1999).

Representative of Russia, “Ministerial on Ice”, Antarctica (1999).

Co-Chairman of the Russian-US Working Group on Law Enforcement (1999).

Member of the Russian delegation to the United Nations General Assembly, Fifty-Third to Fifty-Fifth Sessions; Representative of Russia to the Sixth Committee (1998-2000).

Representative of Russia to the Ad Hoc Committee of Legal Advisers on Public International Law (CAHDI), Council of Europe. Participated in the 16th, 17th, 19th and 20th CADI meetings (Paris, 1998; Vienna, 1999; Berlin, 2000; Strasbourg, 2001).

Chairman of the XXIV Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, St. Petersburg (2001).

Head of the Russian delegation to the Forum on Afghan Refugees and Displaced Populations (Geneva) (2001).

Head of the Russian delegation to the 2nd Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on Prohibition or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects (Geneva) (2001).

Head of the Russian delegation to the negotiations with the Kingdom of Norway on the delimitation of exclusive economic zones and continental shelf in the Barents Sea (1992, 1998-2002).

Head of the Russian delegation to the 5th Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (Geneva) (2001-2002).

Head of the Russian delegation to the 3rd and 4th Annual Conferences of the States Parties to the Protocol II on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects (Geneva) (2001-2002).

Head of the Russian delegation to the Annual Meeting of the States Parties to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects (Geneva) (2002).

Member, Board of Trustees of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) (2002-2005).

Member of the Russian delegation to the World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) (Geneva) (2003).

Deputy Head of the Russian delegation to the Substantive Annual Session of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) (2003).

Head of the Russian delegation to the 28th International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent (2003).

Head of the Russian delegation to the One-Hundred-and-Eleventh Session of the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (2003).

Government Delegate of Russia to the Ninety-Second Session of the International Labour Conference (2004).

Representative of Russia to the First Committee, United Nations General Assembly, Fifty-Ninth Session (2004).

Acting Head of the Russian delegation to the Fifty-Eighth, Fifty-Ninth, Sixtieth and Sixty-First Sessions of the United Nations Commission Human Rights (2002-2005).

Decorations: Order of Friendship (2002). Decree of Commendation by the President of the Russian Federation (2004).

Scholarly, research and expert activities: participated as a panellist in the Conference “Transatlantic Storms? US-European Relations After European Monetary Union (EMU)”, held by the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University (Talloires, France) (1998); took part in the preparation and the work of the Meetings Dedicated to the Centennial of the first International Peace Conference (The Hague and St. Petersburg) (1999); participated in the international conference “Entering the XXI Century: Primacy of Law in International Relations” (Moscow) (2000). Member of the Foundation Council of the Geneva Centre for Security Policy (2002-2005). Participated in the international Workshop on Article 51 of the United Nations Charter in Light of Future Threats to International Peace and Security organized by the Government of Switzerland as a contribution to the work of the High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (Geneva) (2004). Took part as a panellist in the 99th meeting of the American Society of International Law (Washington D.C.) (2005).

Author of a number of publications on international law, including:

“The Right of Self-Defense and the New Security Imperatives”, International Affairs, No. 9, 2004 (in Russian) and No. 6, Vol. 50, 2004 (in English); “The Use of Force: Legal Aspects”, International Affairs, No. 11, 2003 (in Russian); “Entering the 21st Century: Towards the Rule of Law in International Relations”, International Affairs, No. 12, 2000 (in Russian) and No. 1, Vol. 47, 2001 (in English); “The Primacy of Law in Politics”, (co-author), International Affairs, No. 4, 1989 (in Russian) and No. 5, Vol. 35, 1989 (in English).