International Court of Justice

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Current Members


Judge Giorgio Gaja

(Member of the Court since 6 February 2012)

Born in Lucerne, Switzerland, on 7 December 1939. Italian nationality.

Degree in law, University of Rome (1960). Libera docenza in international law (1968). Honorary Doctor of Law, Dickinson Law School (1985).

Professor of International Law, University of Florence (1974-2011), Dean of the Law School (1978-1981).

Lecturer, Hague Academy of International Law (1981 and 2011). Part-time Professor, European University Institute (1980 and 1984-1985). Visiting Professor, Johns Hopkins University (1977-1978), University of Geneva (1983 and 1985), University of Paris I (1989 and 2000), University of Aix-Marseille III (1992), University of Michigan School of Law (1992), Columbia Law School (1996), and Graduate Institute of International Studies (2001).

Member of the International Law Commission (1999-2011). Delegate of the Italian Government to the Vienna Conference on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations and between International Organizations (1986).

Counsel to the Italian Government in the ELSI case before the International Court of Justice. Judge ad hoc in the cases concerning Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslavia v. Italy); Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v. Honduras); Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v. Colombia); Application of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Georgia v. Russian Federation); and Jurisdictional Immunities of the State (Germany v. Italy: Greece intervening).

Member of the Institut de droit international. Editor of the Rivista di Diritto Internazionale. Member of the Advisory Board of the Common Market Law Review, European Journal of International Law and Columbia Journal of European Law.

Principal publications: L’esaurimento dei ricorsi interni nel diritto internazionale, 1967; La deroga alla giurisdizione italiana, 1971; International Commercial Arbitration. The New York Convention (edited looseleaf volumes), 1978 (updated); Introduzione al diritto comunitario, 3rd ed., 2003; “River Pollution in International Law”, Hague Academy of International Law Colloquium, The Protection of the Environment and International Law, 1975; “Considerazioni sugli effetti delle sentenze di merito della Corte internazionale di giustizia”, Comunicazioni e studi, Vol. XIV, 1975; “Reservations to Treaties and the Newly Independent States”, Italian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. I, 1975; “The European Community's Participation in the Law of the Sea Convention; Some Incoherencies in a Compromise Solution”, Italian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 5, 1980-1981; “Jus Cogens beyond the Vienna Convention”, Hague Academy of International Law, Recueil des cours, Vol. 172, 1981; “The European Community’s Rights and Obligations under Mixed Agreements”, Mixed Agreements, 1983; “Effets directs et réciprocité dans la jurisprudence concernant l’accord entre la Communauté européenne et la Suisse”, Annuaire suisse de droit international, Vol. XL, 1984; “Instruments for Legal Integration in the European Community - A Review” (with P. Hay and R. D. Rotunda), Integration through Law: Europe and the American Federal Experience, 1986, Vol. 1.2; “Principi generali del diritto (diritto internazionale)”, Enciclopedia del diritto, Vol. XXXV, 1986; “Unruly Treaty Reservations”, International Law at the Time of Its Codification: Essays in Honour of Roberto Ago, 1987, Vol. I; “Italy”, The Effect of Treaties in Domestic Law, 1987; “A ‘New’ Vienna Convention on Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations: A Critical Commentary”, British Year Book of International Law, Vol. 58, 1987; “Obligations Erga Omnes, International Crimes and Jus Cogens: A Tentative Analysis of Three Related Concepts”, International Crimes of States, 1989; “New Developments in a Continuing Story: The Relationship between EEC Law and Italian Law”, Common Market Law Review, Vol. 27, 1990; “Measures against Terrorist Acts under International Law”, Maritime Terrorism and International Law, 1990; “Positivism and Dualism in Dionisio Anzilotti”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 3, 1992; “Réflexions sur le rôle du Conseil de sécurité dans le nouvel ordre mondial. A propos des rapports entre maintien de la paix et crimes internationaux des États”, Revue générale de droit international public, 1993; “La Convention européenne des droits de l’homme dans les ordres juridiques des États membres de la Communauté européenne”, Grundrechtsschutz im europäischen Raum, 1993; “Beyond the Reasons Stated in Judgments”, Michigan Law Review, Vol. 92, 1993-1994; “The Protection of Human Rights under the Maastricht Treaty”, Institutional Dynamics of European Integration. Essays in Honour of Henry G. Schermers, 1994, Vol. II; “Use of Force Made or Authorized by the United Nations”, The United Nations at Age Fifty. A Legal Perspective, 1995; “Some Reflections on the European Community’s International Responsibility”, The Actions for Damages in Community Law, 1997; “Identifying the Status of General Principles in European Community Law”, Scritti in onore de Giuseppe Federico Mancini, Vol. II, 1998; “How Flexible Is Flexibility under the Amsterdam Treaty?”, Common Market Law Review, Vol. 35, 1998; “Restraints Imposed by European Community Law on the Treaty-Making Power of the Member States”, Dealing with Integration, Vol. 2, 1998; “Does the European Court of Human Rights Use Its Stated Methods of Interpretation?”, Studi in onore di Francesco Capotorti, 1999; “Trattati internazionali”, Digesto delle discipline pubblicistiche, Vol. XV, 1999; “New Instruments and Institutions for Enhancing the Protection of Human Rights in Europe?”, The EU and Human Rights, 1999; “Expulsion of Aliens: Some Old and New Issues in International Law”, Cursos Euromediterráneos Bancaja de Derecho Internacional, Vol. III, 1999; “Deliberating on Questions of Jurisdiction in the International Court of Justice”, Liber Amicorum Judge Shigeru Oda, 2002; “The Long Journey towards Repressing Aggression”, The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Commentary, 2002; “Obligations and Rights Erga Omnes: First Report; Second Report”, Yearbook of the Institute of International Law, Vol. 71-I, 2005; “Relationship of the ICJ with other International Courts and Tribunals”, The Statute of the International Court of Justice: A Commentary, 2006; “Convention de Vienne de 1969 - Article 38”, Les Conventions de Vienne sur le droit des traités: Comments Article by Article, 2006; “General Principles of Law”, Encyclopaedia of Public International Law, 2008; “The Concept of an Injured State”, The Law of International Responsibility, 2010; “A New Way for Submitting Observations on the Construction of Multilateral Treaties to the ICJ”, From Bilateralism to Community Interest. Essays in Honour of Bruno Simma, 2011.