International Court of Justice

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Current Members

 

Judge Bruno Simma

(Member of the Court since 6 February 2003)

Born in Quierschied (Saar), Germany, on 29 March 1941.

Doctorate of Law, University of Innsbruck, Austria (1966). Doctorate honoris causa of the University of Macerata, Italy (2006).

Practice at the Bar in Innsbruck, Austria (1967). Assistant at the Faculty of Law, University of Innsbruck (1967-1972). Universitätsdozent (venia legendi) for International Law and International Relations, Innsbruck (1971). Professor of International Law and European Community Law, Director of the Institute of International Law, University of Munich (1973-2003). Lecturer for International Law at the Training Centre for Junior Diplomats, German Federal Foreign Ministry (1981-1989). Visiting Professor at the University of Siena, Italy (1984-1985). Visiting Professor (1986 and 1995), Professor of Law (1987-1992), Member of the Affiliate Overseas Faculty (since 1997) of the University of Michigan Law School, Ann Arbor, United States (on leave during tenure at the International Court of Justice). Lecturer (1995), Director of Studies (1976 and 1982) at the Hague Academy of International Law. Dean of the Munich Faculty of Law (1995-1997).

Member of the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1987-1996). Member of the United Nations International Law Commission (1996-2003). Member of the Advisory Boards on International Law and on United Nations Issues of the German Federal Foreign Ministry (until 2002).

Was actively engaged in the following cases before the International Court of Justice: Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria: Equatorial Guinea intervening) as counsel for Cameroon (1994-2002); LaGrand (Germany v. United States of America) as Co-agent and counsel for Germany (1999-2001) and Certain Property (Liechtenstein v. Germany) as counsel for Germany (2001-2002).

Arbitrator in the Iron Rhine Arbitration between Belgium and the Netherlands (2003-2005).

Member of the Court of Arbitration for Sport.

Expert at the Council of Europe (Directorate of Legal Affairs) (1972). Expert for the Human Dimension Mechanism of the OSCE and for Conflict Prevention Activities of the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Consultant in cases before the European Commission and the European Court of Human Rights. Consultant on international law to various governments.

Co-founder and first President of the European Society of International Law (2004-2007). Associate Member of the Institut de droit international. Member of the International Council of Environmental Law. Member of the Council (since 1987), Vice-President (1989-1993) of the German Society of International Law. Member of the American Society of International Law and of various other professional associations.

Member of the Advisory Boards of the Heidelberg Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law and the Walther Schücking Institute of International Law at the University of Kiel. Member of the Advisory Council of the British Institute of International and Comparative Law.

Co-founder and co-editor of the European Journal of International Law. Member of the advisory boards of various international legal journals and yearbooks.

Certificate of Merit awarded by the American Society of International Law (1996).

Visiting lectures at around 60 universities and other academic institutions worldwide.

Principal publications: Das Reziprozitätselement in der Entstehung des Völkergewohnheitsrechts, 1970; Das Reziprozitätselement im Zustandekommen völkerrechtlicher Verträge. Gedanken zu einem Bauprinzip der internationalen Rechtsbeziehungen, 1972; Universelles Völkerrecht. Theorie und Praxis (together with Alfred Verdross), 1st ed. 1976, 2nd ed. 1981, 3rd ed. 1984; Territoriale Souveränität und Gebietshoheit. Zur völkerrechtlichen Lage der Oder-Neiße-Gebiete (together with Alfred Verdross and Rudolf Geiger), 1980; Europarecht in Fällen (together with Waldemar Hummer and Christoph Vedder), 1st ed. 1991, 2nd ed. 1994, 3rd ed. 1999; Kompetenzen und Grundrechte: Beschränkungen der Tabakwerbung aus der Sicht des Europarechts (together with Joseph H. Weiler and Markus Zöckler), 1999; Restitution und Entschädigung im Völkerrecht: Die Verpflichtungen der Republik Österreich nach 1945 im Lichte ihrer außenpolitischen Praxis (together with Hans-Peter Folz), 2004; International Protection of the Environment. Treaties and Related Documents (together with Bernd Rüster and Michael Bock), 30 vols., 1975-1983, continued in loose-leaf format 1990 ff.; Zwischen Intervention und Zusammenarbeit. Interdisziplinäre Arbeitsergebnisse zu Grundfragen der KSZE (together with Edda Blenk-Knocke), 1979; Jus humanitatis. Festschrift zum 90. Geburtstag von Alfred Verdross (together with Herbert Miehsler, Erhard Mock and Ilmar Tammelo), 1980; United Nations Codification of State Responsibility (together with Marina Spinedi), 1987; Charta der Vereinten Nationen: Kommentar, 1991; The Charter of the United Nations: A Commentary, 1st ed. 1995, 2nd ed. 2002; Neues europäisches Völkerrecht nach dem Ende des Ost-West-Konfliktes? (together with Hanspeter Neuhold), 1996; “Reflections on Article 60 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties and Its Background in General International Law”, Österreichische Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht, Vol. 20, 1970; “Völkerrechtswissenschaft und Lehre von den Internationalen Beziehungen. Erste Überlegungen zur Interdependenz zweier Disziplinen”, Österreichische Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht, Vol. 23, 1972; “Das Kernkraftwerk an der Grenze: Eine ‘ultra-hazardous activity’ im Schnittpunkt von internationalem Nachbarrecht und Umweltschutz” (together with A. Randelzhofer), Festschrift für Friedrich Berber zum 75. Geburtstag, 1973; “Der Grundvertrag und das Recht der völkerrechtlichen Verträge”, Archiv des öffentliches Rechts, Vol. 100, 1975; “Methodik und Bedeutung des Arbeit der Vereinten Nationen für die Fortentwicklung des Völkerrechts”, Die Vereinten Nationen im Wandel, 1975; “Zur bilateralen Durchsetzung vertraglich verankerter Menschenrechte. Aktivlegitimation und zulässige Mittel nach allgemeinem Völkerrecht”, Autorität und internationale Ordnung. Aufsätze zum Völkerrecht (Christoph Schreuer, ed.), 1979; “Grenzüberschreitender Informationsfluß und domaine réservé der Staaten”, Berichte der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Völkerrecht, Vol. 19, 1979; “Der Beitrag von Alfred Verdross zur Entwicklung der Völkerrechtswissenschaft” (in collaboration with Michael Bock, Jennifer Clayton and Joachim Krauß), Jus humanitatis. Festschrift für Alfred Verdross zum 90. Geburtstag, 1980; “Völkerrecht in der Krise?”, Österreichische Zeitschrift für Außenpolitik, Vol. 20, 1980; “Zur völkerrechtlichen Bedeutung von Resolutionen der UN-Generalversammlung”, Fünftes deutsch-polnisches Juristen-Kolloquium, Vol. 2: Die Bedeutung der Resolutionen der Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen (Rudolf Bernhardt/Jost Delbrück/Ingo von Münch, eds.), 1981; “Droit international coutumier et droit interne selon la Loi fondamentale”, Völkerrecht und Landesrecht. Deutsch-argentinisches Verfassungsrechtskolloquium in Buenos Aires (Michael Bothe/R. E. Vinuesa, eds.), 1982; “Consent: Strains in the Treaty System”, The Structure and Process of International Law: Essays in Legal Philosophy, Doctrine and Theory (R. St. J. Macdonald/D. M. Johnston, eds.), 1983; “Legal Aspects in Intra-(East-West) German Relations”, Maryland Journal of International Law and Trade, Vol. 9, 1985; “Self-contained Regimes”, Netherlands Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 16, 1985; “The Antarctic Treaty as a Treaty Creating an ‘Objective Regime’”, Cornell International Law Journal, Vol. 19, 1985-1986; “Grundfragen der Staatenverantwortlichkeit in der Arbeit der International Law Commission”, Archiv des Völkerrechts, Vol. 24, 1986; “La immunidad de los Estados”, Derecho Comparado (Buenos Aires), 1987; “The Court of Arbitration for Sport”, Völkerrecht. Recht der Internationalen Organisationen. Weltwirtschaftsrecht. Festschrift für Ignaz Seidl-Hohenveldern (K.-H. Böckstiegel/H.-E. Folz/J. M. Mössner/K.Zemanek, eds.), 1988; “Grenzüberschreitende Auswirkungen von Kernkraftanlagen und Völkerrecht” (together with Günther Handl), Österreichische Zeitschrift für Öffentliches Recht und Völkerrecht, Vol. 39, 1988; “Bilateralism and Community Interest in the Law of State Responsibility”, International Law at a Time of Perplexity, Essays in Honour of Shabtai Rosenne (Y. Dinstein/M.Tabory, eds.), 1989; “International Crimes: Injury and Countermeasures. Comments on Part 2 of the ILC Work on State Responsibility”, International Crimes of States (J.H.H. Weiler/A. Cassese/M. Spinedi, eds.), 1989; “Wirtschaftliche, soziale und kulturelle Rechte im Völkerrecht. Der Internationale Pakt von 1966 und sein Kontrollverfahren” (together with Sabine Bennigsen), Festschrift für Ernst Steindorff zum 70. Geburtstag am 13. März 1990, 1990; “A Hard Look at Soft Law”, Proceedings 82nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law, 1991; “The Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights”, Die Durchsetzung wirtschaftlicher und sozialer Grundrechte (Franz Matscher, ed.), 1991; “The Sources of Human Rights Law: Custom, Jus Cogens, General Principles” (together with Philip Alston), The Australian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 12, 1992; “Does the UN Charter Provide an Adequate Legal Basis for Individual or Collective Responses to Violations of Obligations erga omnes?”, The Future of International Law Enforcement: New Scenarios - New Law? (Jost Delbrück, ed.), 1993; “International Human Rights and General International Law: A Comparative Analysis”, Collective Courses of the European Academy of European Law, Vol. IV, Book 2, 1994; “Die Erzeugung ungeschriebenen Völkerrechts: Allgemeine Verunsicherung - klärende Beiträge Karl Zemaneks”, Völkerrecht zwischen normativem Anspruch und politischer Realität. Festschrift für Karl Zemanek (K. Ginther/ G. Hafner/W. Lang/N. Neuhold/L. Sucharipa-Behrmann, eds.), 1994; “Countermeasures and Dispute Settlement: A Plea for a Different Balance”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 5, 1994; “From Bilateralism to Community Interest in International Law”, Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, Vol. 250, 1994-VI; “The Contribution of Alfred Verdross to the Theory of International Law”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 6, 1995; “Human Rights”, The United Nations at Age Fifty: A Legal Perspective (Ch. Tomuschat, ed.), 1995; “The ‘International Community’: Facing the Challenge of Globalization” (together with Andreas Paulus), European Journal of International Law, Vol. 9, 1998; “The Impact of Nuremberg and Tokyo: Attempts at a Comparison”, Japan and International Law, Past, Present and Future (N. Ando, ed.), 1999; “Human rights considerations in development cooperation activities of the European Community” (together with Jo Aschenbrenner and Constanze Schulte), The European Union and Human Rights (Ph. Alston et al., eds.), 1999; “The Responsibility of Individuals for Human Rights Abuses in Internal Conflicts: A Positivist View” (together with Andreas Paulus), American Journal of International Law, Vol. 93, 1999; “NATO, the UN and the Use of Force: Legal Aspects”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, 1999; “Le rôle relatif des différentes sources du droit international (dont les principes généraux de droit)” (together with Andreas Paulus), Droit international pénal, 2000; “Reciprocity”, Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Rudolf Bernhardt, ed.), Vol. IV, 2000; “International Adjudication and U.S. Policy - Past, Present, Future”, Democracy and the Rule of Law (N. Dorsen/P. Gilford, eds.), 2001; “Peaceful Settlement of Boundary Disputes under the Auspices of the Organization of African Unity and the United Nations: The Case of the Frontier Dispute between Eritrea and Ethiopia” (together with Daniel Khan), Liber Amicorum Judge Shigeru Oda, Vol. 2 (N. Ando/E. McWhinney/R. Wolfrum, eds.), 2002; Reports on the Work of the International Law Commission at its 49th to 54th sessions, Nordic Journal of International Law, 1997-2003; “Staatenverantwortlichkeit und Menschenrechte im ILC-Entwurf 2001”, Verhandeln für den Frieden - Negotiating for Peace: Liber Amicorum Tono Eitel (Jochen Abr. Frowein, Klaus Scharioth, Ingo Winkelman, Rüdiger Wolfrum, eds.), 2003; “Article 37” (together with Daphne Richemond), The Statute of the International Court of Justice: A Commentary (A. Zimmermann/Ch. Tomuschat/K. Oellers-Frahm, eds.), 2006; “Eine endlose Geschichte? Artikel 36 der Wiener Konsularkonvention in Todesstrafenfällen vor dem IGH und amerikanischen Gerichten”, Völkerrecht als Wertordnung. Festschrift für Christian Tomuschat (P.-M. Dupuy/B. Fassbender/M. N. Shaw/K.-P. Sommermann, eds.), 2006; “Of Planets and the Universe: Self-contained Regimes in International Law (together with Dirk Pulkowski), European Journal of International Law, Vol. 17, 2006; “From LaGrand and Avena to Medellin - A Rocky Road Toward Implementation” (together with Carsten Hoppe), Tulane Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol. 14, 2005/2006; “The LaGrand Case: A Story of Many Miscommunications” (together with Carsten Hoppe), International Law Stories (J. E. Noyes, L. Dickinson, M. W. Janis, eds.), 2007; “Human Rights and State Responsibility”, The Law of International Relations - Liber Amicorum Hanspeter Neuhold (A. Reinisch and U. Kriebaum, eds.), 2007; “Der Einfluss der Menschenrechte auf das Völkerrecht: ein Entwurf”, International Law between Universalism and Fragmentation. Festschrift für Gerhard Hafner (I. Buffard, J. Crawford, A. Pellet, S. Wittich, eds.), 2008; “Harmonizing Investment Protection and International Human Rights: First Steps towards a Methodology” (together with Theodore Kill), Festschrift für Christoph Schreuer (2009); “How Has Article 36 (2) of the ICJ Statute Fared?”, A Wiser Century? (A. Zimmermann, ed.), 2009; “Universality of International Law from the Perspective of a Practitioner”, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 20, 2009; “Genocide and the International Court of Justice”, The Genocide Convention at Age Sixty (C. Safferling, ed.), 2009; General Course at the Hague Academy of International Law on “The Impact of Human Rights on International Law” in the summer of 2009.