International Court of Justice

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The Court

President Rosalyn Higgins

(Member of the Court from 12 July 1995 to 5 February 2009; President of the Court from 6 February 2006 to 5 February 2009) *

Born in London, United Kingdom, on 2 June 1937.  

Married to the Rt. Hon. the Lord Higgins, KBE, DL.  Dame Commander of the British Empire (1995).  Fellow of the British Academy;  Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.  BA (Cantab) 1st Class (1959).

Commonwealth Fund (Harkness) Fellowship (1959-1961);  Graduate Fellow, Yale Law School (1959-1961);  LL.B (Cantab) 1st Class (1962);  JSD (Yale) (1962);  MA (Cantab) (1962);  Honorary Fellow of London School of Economics and of Girton College, Cambridge.

Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship (1961);  Vols. I and II of United Nations Peacekeeping received the 1971 Certificate of Merit of the American Society International Law;  British Academy Award (1977-1978);  Honorary Doctorate of the University of Paris XI (1980), University of Dundee (1992), University of Dundee (1992);  University of Durham and The London School of Economics (1995), University of Cambridge, University of Kent, University of Essex, University of Sussex, University of Greenwich and London City University (1996), University of Birmingham, University of Leicester, University of Glasgow (1997) and  University of Nottingham (1999), University of Oxford (2002), University of Reading (2005).  Received the 1995 Certificate of Merit of the American Society of International Law for Problems and Process:  International Law an how we use it.  Wolfgang-Friedman Medal for services to International Law, Colombia University (1985);  Harold Weil Medal, New York University (1995);  Chevalier d’Ordre des Palmes Académiques (1988);  Honorary Life Membership Award, American Society of International Law (1992);  Yale Law School Medal of Merit (1997) and the Manley O. Hudson Medal (1998).

United Kingdom Intern, Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations (1958);  Visiting Fellow, Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (1960);  Junior Fellow in international studies, London School of Economics (1961-1963);  Staff specialist in international law, Royal Institute of International Affairs (1963-1974);  Visiting Fellow, London School of Economics (1974-1978);  Professor of International Law, University of Kent at Canterbury (1978-1981);  Professor of International Law, University of London (1981-1995).

Barrister, practising in public international law and petroleum law.  Practice in the English courts and before various international tribunals, including the International Court of Justice, the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of the European Communities.

Queen’s Counsel (1986);  Bencher of the Inner Temple (1989).

Counsel for the International Tin Council in a series of cases in the United Kingdom.

Counsel in the following cases in the International Court of Justice:  case concerning East Timor (Portugal v. Australia)Territorial Dispute (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya/Chad)Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. United Kingdom);  case concerning Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia).

Member, Arbitral Tribunal:  Arbitration between Eritrea and Yemen:  Territorial Sovereignty (1998);  Maritime Delimitation (1999);  President, AMCO Asia/Indonesia, Resubmitted case, Award on Jurisdiction, 1988;  ibid., Award on Merits, 1992;  President, Iron Rhine Arbitration (Belgium v. Netherlands) (2003-2005);  President, Interpretation of the Award in the Iron Rhine (2005);  President, Capital Power Mauritius I and Energy Enterprises (Mauritius) Company v. Republic of India(2004-2005).

Member of the Committee on Human Rights under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1985-1995);  Special Rapporteur for new cases (1989-1991).

Associé of the Institut de droit international (1987), Member (1991);  Chairman, Public International Law Advisory Board, British Institute for International and Comparative Law (1992-2005);  Honorary Life Vice-President of the American Society of International Law (1993).

Board of Editors of the American Journal of International Law , 1975-1985;  and Ex Officio since 2003;  of the Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law and of the British Yearbook of International Law.

Author of The Development of International Law through the Political Organs of the United Nations, 1963;  Conflict of Interests:  International Law in a Divided World, 1965;  The Administration of the United Kingdom Foreign Policy through the United Nations, 1966;  United Nations Peacekeeping:  Documents and Commentary, Vol. I, Middle East, 1969, Vol. II, Asia, 1970, Vol. III, Africa, 1980, Vol. IV, Europe, 1981;  Law in Movement ¾ Essays in Memory of John McMahon (joint editor with James Fawcett), 1974;  “The Taking of Property by the State:  Recent Developments in International Law”, Recueil des Cours, Hague Academy in International Law, Vol. 176, 1982;  Liberté de Circulation des Personnes en Droit International (joint edition with Maurice Flory), 1988;  “International Law and the Avoidance, Containment and resolution of Disputes” (General Course on Public International Law), Recueil des cours, Vol. 230, 1991;  Problems and Process:  International Law and How We Use It, 1994.

Also of various works and articles on international legal theory, United Nations law, the use of force, State and diplomatic immunities, human rights and international petroleum law.

* Biography up to 5 February 2009