Licence (Bachelor's degree) in law, University of Paris. Diplôme from the Paris Institute of Political Studies; Diplôme d'études supérieures d'économie politique et de science économique (Diploma of Advanced Studies in Political Economy and Economic Science), University of Paris.
Alumnus of the Ecole nationale d'administration.
Member of the Council of State, as Auditeur (1957), then Maître des Requêtes (1963), and most recently Councillor of State (1981-1996).
Legal Adviser to the State Secretariat for Civil Aviation (1968-1979); French Representative on the Legal Committee of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) (1968-1979) and Chairman of the Committee (1971-1975); delegate to the diplomatic conferences on the suppression of the unlawful seizure of aircraft (The Hague, 1970), the suppression of unlawful acts against the safety of civil aircraft (Montreal, 1971) and air safety (Rome, 1973); President of the Diplomatic Conference on the Liability of the Air Carrier (Montreal, 1975); Head of the French delegations to the diplomatic conferences on the liability of the carrier vis-à-vis third parties (Montreal, 1978) and the non-use of force against civil aircraft (Montreal, 1984).
Chairman of the Conciliation Commission, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1973-1978); Member of the European Space Agency Appeals Board (1975-1978); Director of Legal Affairs, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (1979).
Director of Legal Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1979-1987).
Counsel for France in the arbitration proceedings between France and the United States over the Franco-American air agreement (1978); Agent for France in the arbitration proceedings between France and Canada over the Franco-Canadian fisheries agreement (1986); Agent for France in numerous cases before the Court of Justice of the European Communities and the European Commission and Court of Human Rights. French Representative on the Central Commission for the Navigation of the Rhine (1979-1987); Chairman of the Commission (1981-1982); French Representative on the Asian-African Legal Consultative Committee (1980-1987).
French delegate to the General Assembly of the United Nations (Sixth Committee) (1982-1987); Head of the French delegation to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (1982), the United Nations Conference on Succession of States in respect of State Property, Archives and Debts (Vienna, 1983) and the United Nations Conference on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations (Vienna, 1986).
Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration (since 1980). Member of the Court of Arbitration of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Designated arbitrator by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT), the International Chamber of Commerce and the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
President of the French branch of the International Law Association (ILA). Member of the Institute of International Law. Vice-President of the French Society for International Law. Honorary Chairman of the French Society for Air and Space Law. Member of the Académie de marine. Member of the Académie de l'air et de l'espace. Member of the International Academy of Comparative Law. Member of the Scientific Board of the Revue générale de droit international public and of the Board of Directors of the Annuaire français de droit international. Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Revue française de droit aérien et spatial. President of the Institute of Air and Space Law of Leiden University.
Author of numerous works and articles. Has given a course on "Terrorism and International Law" at the Hague Academy of International Law ("Terrorisme et droit international", Recueil des cours, vol. 215, 1989). Author of a work on Les grandes crises internationales et le droit (1994).