International Court of Justice

Accessibility Options



Current Members

 

Vice-President Bernardo Sepúlveda-Amor

(Member of the Court since 6 February 2006 ; Vice-President of the Court since 6 February 2012)

Born in Mexico City on 14 December 1941. Law degree, National University of Mexico (1964) (magna cum laude); LL.M. (Cantab.) (1966); Diploma in International Law (Cantab.) (1965); Honorary Fellow of Queens’ College, University of Cambridge (1990); Honorary Doctorate from the University of San Diego (1982) and from the University of Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) (1987); Rockefeller Foundation Fellowship (1964-1966).

Professor of International Law and International Organizations at El Colegio de Mexico since 1967, where he was also Associate Research Fellow (1993-2006). Lecturer in a number of academic institutions: Faculty of Political and Social Sciences (National University of Mexico); Institute of Legal Research (National University of Mexico); Centro de Investigaciónes y Docencia Economíca (CIDE); Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de Mexico (ITAM); Instituto Matías Romero de Estudos Diplomáticos (Mexican Foreign Office); Hague Academy of International Law (Regional Programme, Mexico City, 2002); Institute of European Integration Studies (El Colegio de Mexico, 1994-1996).

Deputy Director for Legal Affairs, Secretary of the Presidency (1968-1970); Director of the Foreign Investment Program (1971-1975) and then Director General for International Affairs (1976-1980) at the Secretary of the Treasury. Principal Adviser on International Affairs to the Secretary of the Budget (1981).

Ambassador of Mexico to the United States of America (1982).

Secretary of Foreign Relations of Mexico (1982-1988).

Ambassador of Mexico to the United Kingdom and, concurrently, to Ireland (1989-1993).

President of the Mexican delegations to the General Assembly of the United Nations and to the General Assembly of the Organization of American States, as well as of other international regional and global organizations (1982-1988).

Co-Chairman of the Mexico-United States Bi-national Commission, together with the United States Secretary of State (1982-1988).

As Foreign Secretary, he was responsible for the Mexican participation in the Central American peace process that took place from 1982 to 1988. For those purposes and together with Venezuela, Colombia and Panama, he established the Contadora Group as a diplomatic instrument to bring peace and stability to the area.

Together with the Foreign Ministers of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, he took part in the creation of the Group of Eight, now the Rio Group, an institution devoted to promoting Latin American co-operation; under its auspices, presidential summits have taken place since 1987.

Member of a number of Mexican delegations to United Nations conferences, where he attended, among others, the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, the Vienna Conference on the Law of Treaties and several United Nations conferences on disarmament. He was a member of the Mexican delegation to the 1981 Cancun Meeting of Heads of State and Government.

In 1980 he became President of the United Nations Commission on Transnational Corporations; elected Rapporteur of the Inter-governmental Working Group on a Code of Conduct for Transnational Corporations (1978-1980); he was the Mexican representative to the Commission on Transnational Corporations (1977-1981).

Member of the Mexican delegations to the annual meetings of the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank, as well as the Group of 24 (1976-1980).

Member of the United Nations International Law Commission (1996-2005).

General Counsel of Grupo ICA, the largest construction company in Mexico (1997-2005).

Judge ad hoc of the International Court of Justice in the case concerning Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. United States of America).

Member of the Board of Trustees of the Permanent Court of Arbitration Financial Assistance Fund (2006-).

Member of the Panel of Arbitrators of the International Center for Dispute Resolution (ICDR), the international division of the American Arbitration Association. Member of the Institute for Transnational Arbitration (ITA), a division of the Center for American and International Law. Member of the Commission of Arbitration of the Mexican Chamber of Commerce. President of an arbitral tribunal in an ICC case and in an ICSID case.

President of the Latin American Society of International Law, elected in February 2010.

Member of the Executive Council of the American Society of International Law (1974-1975). President of the Mexican Branch of the International Law Association (ILA) (2000-2005).

Member of the Executive Council of Transparencia Mexicana, a non-governmental organization linked to International Transparency.

Member of the Executive Board of the Mexican Council of Foreign Relations.

Former member of the Editorial Board of Foro Internacional, the journal of international affairs of El Colegio de Mexico. He has written a considerable number of books and articles on the United Nations, international law, foreign policy, and international economic issues.

In 1984, he received from King Juan Carlos of Spain the Principe de Asturias Prize in the field of international co-operation. In 1985, Unesco awarded him the Simón Bolivar Prize. He is the recipient of a number of orders, decorations and medals awarded by foreign governments, which include, among others, the Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Michael and Saint George; the Grand Cross, Order of Isabel la Católica; the Grand Cross, Order of General San Martin; Ribbon, Order of Kwang-Wha; the Grand Cross, Order of Cristo; Order of the Republic of Egypt, First Class; the Grand Cross of the Order of Cruzeiro do Sul; the Grand Cordon, Order of the Rising Sun; Grand Officer, Ordre de la Légion d’Honneur.

Publications

“Las Naciones Unidas, el Tratado de Río y la OEA” (The United Nations, the Rio Treaty and the Organization of American States (OAS)), Foro Internacional, Vol. VII, Nos. 1-2, 1967.

Las Naciones Unidas: dilema a los 25 años (The United Nations: Dilemma at 25 years) (co-editor), México, El Colegio de México, 1970.

“Derecho del Mar: apuntes sobre el sistema legal mexicano” (Law of the sea: Notes on the Mexican legal system), La política exterior de México: realidad y perspectivas, México, El Colegio de México, 1972.

“Los orígenes políticos del Porfiriato” (Political origins of the Porfiriato), Foro Internacional, Vol. XII, No. 3, 1972.

La inversión extranjera en México (Foreign investment in Mexico), México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1973.

Las empresas transnacionales en México (Transnational corporations in Mexico), México, El Colegio de México, 1974.

“A Mexican view of foreign investment”, Proceedings of the 68th annual meeting of the American Society of International Law, Washington D.C., April 1974.

“Mexico and the Law of the Sea”, in The Changing Law of the Sea: Western Hemisphere Perspectives, Ralph Zacklin (ed.), Leiden, Sijthoff, 1974.

“La estrategia de las corporaciones transnacionales y el sistema jurídico de los Estados: la experiencia latinoamericana” (Strategies of transnational corporations and legal systems of States: the Latin American experience), OAS, Series K/XXI.I; Inter-American Convention on General Rules of Private International Law (CIDIP)-IV (mimeograph), 25 February 1974.

“GATT, ALALC y el trato de más favor” (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA) and Most Favoured Nation Treatment), in Lecturas: Derecho Económico Internacional, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1974.

“Las empresas transnacionales y la transferencia de tecnología: perspectivas para su regulación internacional” (Transnational corporations and the transfer of technology: views on international controls), in Los problemas de un mundo en proceso de cambio. Luis González Souza and Ricardo Méndez Silva (eds.), México, Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM), 1978.

“Perspectivas de un país de desarrollo intermedio sobre la economía internacional” (Views of a developing country on the international economy), Visión del México contemporáneo, México, El Colegio de México, 1979.

“Las nuevas reglas del GATT y el sistema legal mexicano” (The new GATT rules and the Mexican legal system), Comercio Exterior, México, 1980.

“Inversión extranjera, deuda externa y comercio exterior: notas sobre el orden jurídico mexicano” (Foreign investment, external debt and foreign trade: notes on the Mexican legal order), Anuario Jurídico, México, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM, 1980.

“La crisis económica mundial: el nuevo orden internacional y la planeación: comentarios” (The world economic crisis: the new international order and planning: commentaries), in Planeación para el desarrollo, México, SPP/Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1981.

“La regulación internacional de las empresas transnacionales” (International regulation of transnational corporations), Foro Internacional, No. 84, 1981.

“La regulación jurídica de las inversiones extranjeras en México” (Legal regulation of foreign investments in Mexico), Aspectos jurídicos de la planeación en México, México, SPP/Editorial Porrúa, 1981.

“Perspectivas de la relación entre México y Estados Unidos” (Perspectives on the relationship between Mexico and the United States), in Institutional Revolutionary Party, Comisión de Asuntos Internacionales, Grandes temas de política exterior, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1983, pp. 308-310.

“Reflexiones sobre la política exterior de México” (Reflections on Mexican foreign policy). Foro Internacional, Vol. XXIV, No. 4, April-June 1984.

“México en las Naciones Unidas: un balance de cuatro décadas” (Mexico in the United Nations: taking stock after four decades), in México en las Naciones Unidas, México, Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, 1986, pp. 7-13.

“Política exterior de México ⎯ Discursos y documentos” (Mexican foreign policy ⎯ statements and documents), six volumes covering the period from 1983 to 1988, México, Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, 1983-1988.

“México en la concertación política internacional” (Mexico in the international political sphere). In Rosario Green (ed.), México y sus estrategias internacionales, México, Diana, 1989, pp. 119-133.

“Latin American-European Relations in the 1990s”, in Dermot Keogh (ed.), Beyond the Cold War: Europe and the Superpowers in the 1990s, Dublin, Hibernian University Press, 1990, pp. 94-106.

“La política exterior de México en la coyuntura internacional” (Mexican foreign policy at the current international juncture), in Coloquio de Invierno. Los grandes cambios de nuestro tiempo: la situación internacional, América Latina y México. Vol. III: México y los cambios de nuestro tiempo, México, UNAM/Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes (CONACULTA)/Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1992, pp. 290-300.

“Política exterior y estrategias de seguridad y defensa: los trabajos de la Comunidad Europea” (Foreign policy and security and defence strategies: the work of the European Community). México y Europa, México, Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, 1992.

“Seguridad y defensa: después de Maastricht” (Security and defence: after Maastricht), Nexos, No. 172, April 1992.

“Doctrina y práctica de la política exterior de México (1982-1988)” (Doctrine and practice in Mexican foreign policy (1982-1988)). Ensayos Jalincienses. Guadalajara, El Colegio de Jalisco, 1993.

“Régimen de partidos y renovación continua” (The party system and continuing renewal), Examen, No. 67, December 1994.

“Política exterior para el desarrollo nacional” (Foreign policy for national development), Examen, No. 54, November 1993.

“Política exterior y tratado de libre comercio” (Foreign policy and the free trade agreement), Comercio Exterior, June 1994.

“Los intereses de la política exterior” (Foreign policy interests), in César Sepúlveda (ed.), La política internacional de México en el decenio de los ochenta, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1994.

“Asuntos internacionales de México: una bibliografía (1980-1993)” (Mexican international affairs: a bibliography (1980-1993)), in César Sepúlveda (ed.), La política internacional de México en el decenio de los ochenta, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1994.

“Los intereses de la política exterior” (Foreign policy interests), Nexos, No. 203, November 1994.

“No intervención y derecho de injerencia: el imperio o la decadencia de la soberanía” (Non-intervention and the right to intervene: the preponderance or erosion of sovereignty), Modesto Seara Vázquez (ed.), Las Naciones Unidas a los 50 años, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1995.

“El oficio internacional” (International vocation). Introduction to the Obras Completas de Jorge Castañeda. Three volumes, co-published by El Colegio de México and the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, México, 1995.

“México, el Consejo de Seguridad y el futuro de las Naciones Unidas” (Mexico, the Security Council and the future of the United Nations), Foro Internacional, No. 142, October-December 1995, El Colegio de México.

“Un galope en la obscuridad: México, el Consejo de Seguridad y el futuro de la ONU” (Galloping into the darkness: Mexico, the Security Council and the future of the United Nations), Enfoque, Sunday supplement to the newspaper Reforma, October 1995.

“El Senado y la política exterior” (The Senate and foreign policy), in Libro homenaje a Rafael Segovia, con motivo de su designación como profesor emérito del Colegio de México, México, El Colegio de México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), 1998.

“El TLC y las reivindicaciones de la jurisdicción mexicana” (The free trade agreement and the claims of Mexican jurisdiction), in El papel del derecho internacional en América: la soberanía nacional en la era de la integración regional, México, Facultad de Derecho of UNAM/American Society of International Law, 1997. This essay was also published under the title “Jurisdicción nacional, agotamiento de los recursos locales y protección de inversiones extranjeras: los riesgos del TLCAN” (National jurisdiction, exhaustion of local remedies and protection of foreign investments: the risks of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)) in the yearbook México, Estados Unidos, Canadá: 1995-1996. Gustavo Vega and Francisco Alba (eds.), México, El Colegio de México, Centro de Estudios Internacionales, 1997.

“El equilibrio del poder en perspectiva” (The balance of power in perspective). Review of the book Diplomacy by Henry Kissinger, Este País, April 1996.

“México y Europa” (Mexico and Europe), Este País, October 1996.

“Hacia un nuevo concierto europeo” (Towards a new European harmony). Commentaries on the special issue of Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior (49) devoted to Mexico and the European Union, Este País, October 1996.

“México y su compromiso con la protección de los derechos humanos” (Mexico and its commitment to protecting human rights), Revista de la Facultad de Derecho de México, Nos. 205-206, México, UNAM, January-April 1996.

“México y la Unión Europea: hacia un nuevo entendimiento” (Mexico and the European Union: towards a new understanding), Todo México 1997, Enciclopedia de México, México, 1997.

“Los valores éticos y el orden jurídico mexicano: la perspectiva del derecho internacional” (Ethical values and the Mexican legal order from the viewpoint of international law). Sergio García Ramírez (ed.), Los valores en el derecho mexicano, México, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas de la UNAM/Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1997.

“Objetivos e intereses de la política exterior” (Foreign policy goals and interests), Ilan Bizberg (ed.), México ante el fin de la guerra fría, México, Centro de Estudios Internacionales, El Colegio de México, 1998.

“Las relaciones interamericanas: cuestiones de política, derecho y diplomacia” (Inter-American relations: matters of policy, law and diplomacy), Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior, No. 59, February 2000, México, Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, Instituto Matías Romero, 2000.

“Memorias de la diplomacia mexicana” (Recollections of Mexican diplomacy). Revista Mexicana de Política Exterior, No. 60, June 2000, México, Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, Instituto Matías Romero, 2000.

“La globalización y las opciones nacionales: memoria. La globalización y las soberanías nacionales” (Globalization and national options: report. Globalization and national sovereignty), México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2000.

“Orden y desorden internacional: La función del Estado” (International order and disorder: the role of the State), Este País, No. 119, February 2001.

“Las definiciones de la politíca exterior” (Defining foreign policy), in Rafael Fernández de Castro (co-ord.), México en el mundo: los desafíos para México en 2001, México, Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM), 2001.

“Una asignatura pendiente: la participación de México en las operaciones de paz de la ONU” (Unfinished business: Mexico’s participation in United Nations peace operations). in Miguel Covian (ed.), Cumbre del Milenio: Hacia dónde van las Naciones Unidas? México, Instituto Matías Romero, Secretariat of Foreign Affairs, 2001.

“Terrorismo, seguridad nacional y seguridad colectiva” (Terrorism, national security and collective security), Este País, February 2002.

“Terrorismo transnacional y seguridad colectiva” (Transnational terrorism and collective security), in Rafael Fernández de Castro (co-ord.), Cambio y continuidad en la politíca exterior de México: México en el mundo 2002, México, Editorial Planeta/Ariel, 2002.

“Política exterior: terrorismo, seguridad nacional y seguridad colectiva” (Foreign policy: terrorism, national security and collective security), in Enrique González Pedrero (co-ord.), México: Transiciones múltiples, gobernabilidad y Estado nacional, México, Instituto Nacional de Administración Pública/Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2003.

“El eje del mal y su destino manifiesto” (The axis of evil and its manifest destiny), in José Juan de Olloqui (co-ord.), Problemas jurídicos y políticos del terrorismo, México, Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas, UNAM, 2003.

“Educar para entender” (Educating for understanding), Este País, December 2003.

“Orden jurídico y derechos humanos” (The legal order and human rights), Este País, November 2004.

“Derechos humanos: México en la perspectiva internacional” (Human rights: Mexico from an international perspective, Iurisdictio, bulletin of the High Court of Justice of the State of Querétaro, January 2005.

“Mexico and the settlement of investment disputes: ICSID as the recommended option”. The Institute for Transnational Arbitration, Vol. 19, No. 1, winter 2005.

“Una perspectiva mexicana de los asuntos internacionales” (A Mexican perspective on international affairs), Este País, May 2005.

“México y el arreglo de controversias en materia de inversión: el CIADI como opción necesaria”, in Bernardo Sepúlveda, Juez de la Corte Internacional de Justicia, Gustavo Vega (co-ord.), El Colegio de México, 2007.

“Contribution of the International Court of Justice to the Development of the Law of the Sea”, Aegean Review on the Law of the Sea, Aegean Institute of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law, Springer, 2009.

“Las politicas mexicanas en los espacios de la jurisdicción internacional”, en Diálogos sobre la Justicia Internacional, B. Sepúlveda-Amor (co-ord.), México, Editorial Trillas, 2009.

“La Corte Internacional de Justicia y los derechos humanos”. Memoria del Seminario Internacional sobre Derechos Civiles y Politicos, co-edicion del Tribunal Electoral del Poder Judicial de la Federación y del Instituto de Investigaciones Juridicos de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 2010.

“La Corte Internacional de Justicia y la expansión y profundización de un orden jurídico: contribuciones recientes” (2006-2009). To be published in 2010 by the Faculty of Law of the National University of Mexico.

“Las tareas diplomaticas de Alfonso Reyes”, Colección Capilla Alfonsina, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica/Tec. de Monterrey, 2010.

International Court of Justice: Opinions

(For the text of the Opinions, see www.icj-cij.org)

— Separate Opinion of Judge ad hoc Bernardo Sepúlveda-Amor in the case concerning Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. United States of America), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 2004.

— Dissenting Opinion of Judge Bernardo Sepúlveda-Amor in Request for Interpretation of the Judgment of 31 March 2004 in the Case concerning Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mexico v. United States of America) (Mexico v. United States of America), Judgment of 19 January 2009.

— Separate Opinion of Judge Bernardo Sepúlveda-Amor in the case concerning the Dispute regarding Navigational and Related Rights (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), Judgment of 13 July 2009.